For the betterment, reliability and performance of an Information System, it is always better to involve the Testing team right from the beginning of the Requirement Analysis phase. The active involvement of the testing team will give the testers a clear vision of the functionality of the system by which we can expect a better quality and error-free product.

Once the Development Team-lead analyzes the requirements, he will prepare the System Requirement Specification, Requirement Traceability Matrix. After that he will schedule a meeting with the Testing Team (Test Lead and Tester chosen for that project). The Development Team-lead will explain regarding the Project, the total schedule of modules, Deliverables and Versions.

The involvement of Testing team will start from here. Test Lead will prepare the Test Strategy and Test Plan, which is the scheduler for entire testing process. Here he will plan when each phase of testing such as Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, User Acceptance Testing. Generally Organizations follow the V – Model for their development and testing.

After analyzing the requirements, Development Team prepares System Requirement Specification, Requirement Traceability Matrix, Software Project Plan, Software Configuration Management Plan, Software Measurements/metrics plan, Software Quality Assurance Plan and move to the next phase of Software Life Cycle ie., Design. Here they will prepare some important Documents like Detailed Design Document, Updated Requirement Traceability Matrix, Unit Test Cases Document (which is prepared by the Developers if there are no separate White-box testers), Integration Test Cases Document, System Test Plan Document, Review and SQA audit Reports for all Test Cases.

After preparation of the Test Plan, Test Lead distributes the work to the individual testers (white-box testers & black-box testers). Testers work will start from this stage, based on Software Requirement Specification/Functional Requirement Document they will prepare Test Cases using a standard Template or Automation Tool. After that they will send them for review to the Test Lead. Once the Test Lead approves it, they will prepare the Test Environment/Test bed, which is specifically used for Testing. Typically the Test Environment replicates the Client side system setup. We are ready for Testing. While testing team will work on Test strategy, Test plan, Test Cases simultaneously the Development team will work on their individual Modules. Before three or four days of First Release they will give an interim Release to the Testing Team. They will deploy that software in Test Machine and the actual testing will start. The Testing Team handles configuration management of Builds.

After that the Testing team do testing against Test Cases, which are already prepared and report bugs in a Bug Report Template or automation Tool (based on Organization). They will track the bugs by changing the status of Bug at each and every stage. Once Cycle #1 testing is done, then they will submit the Bug Report to the Test Lead then he will discuss these issues with Development Team-lead after which they work on those bugs and will fix those bugs. After all the bugs are fixed they will release next build. The Cycle#2 testing starts at this stage and now we have to run all the Test Cases and check whether all the bugs reported in Cycle#1 are fixed or not.

And here we will do regression testing means, we have to check whether the change in the code give any side effects to the already tested code. Again we repeat the same process till the Delivery Date. Generally we will document 4 Cycles information in the Test Case Document. At the time of Release there should not be any high severity and high priority bugs. Of course it should have some minor bugs, which are going to be fixed in next iteration or release (generally called Deferred bugs). And at the end of Delivery Test Lead and individual testers prepare some reports. Some times the Testers also participate in the Code Reviews, which is static testing. They will check the code against historical logical errors checklist, indentation, proper commenting. Testing team is also responsible to keep the track of Change management to give qualitative and bug-free product.

You may also read:

Need for Software Testing

Software Testing Definition:

Software Testing is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically to uncover the defects or errors to assess the quality.

Why testing is necessary?

Without testing, we have no way to establishing the quality of an information system. This means that the product we are developing could have faults that may damage our business when we implement it. Some faults can cause minor disruptions, but others can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, we need to establish which faults are nested in an information system before it is released.

Some developers believe that the goal of testing is to ensure that an information system does what it is supposed to do. While this is certainly an important part of testing, it is not a complete requirement. When we test an information system, we want to add value to it – testing costs money, so there must be a cost benefit in performing tests. This means adding quality through the identification of issues, and reporting them to the development team responsible for fixing them. Therefore, the assumption that we should start with is not that an information system works correctly, but rather that it contains faults, which must be identified. Testing should aim to identify as many faults as possible. Looking at testing in this light can give you a very different mindset – you will be looking for faults and failures instead of monitoring if the information system performs as described. Our test cases will be more focused on the thing testers really want, finding the bugs.

Not all encountered failures have to be solved before an information system can be taken into production – instead of ‘unknown bugs’, they become ‘known errors’ and can be scheduled for debugging by a developer. Testers provide this information to the decision makers in an Organization so that a well-founded risk assessment can be undertaken prior to an implementation decision being made.

  • Testing is always risk based – where there are no risks, we should not put any effort into testing an information system.
  • You cannot test everything – some risks will always remain, even in a fully tested system.
  • You can demonstrate that there are faults in an information system, but you cannot say with certainly that there are no faults.
  • The bugs are social creatures – if you find errors in one area, you would expect to find more errors in that specific area.
  • Testing is a job that is very distinct from development, requiring special skills, even if it is not always looked upon that way.

In previous years, testing was considered to be just another phase in the cycle of system development – testing followed coding as night follows day. This implied that a precondition to testing was that coding was largely finished, and that any code changes identified by testing would be minimal. Testing was always on a critical path, and every delay that the development team suffered meant less time for testing. Faults in an information system were identified in the testing phase only by the obvious method of executing the code.

Firstly, it has been recognized that faults cannot be found only by executing the code – potential defects can be identified much earlier in the development cycle. For example, every product developed during a project can be tested by using techniques such as reviews, structured walkthroughs, and inspections.

Software Testing Objectives

Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.

Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of system specification, design and coding. Testing is the last chance to uncover the errors / defects in the software and facilitates delivery of quality system.

Software Testing Principles

The basic principles for effective software testing are as follows:

  • A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error.
  • A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error.
  • All tests should be traceable to the customer requirements
  • Tests should be planned long before testing begins
  • Testing should begin “ in the small” and progress towards testing “in the large”
  • Exhaustive testing is not possible
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How and when Testing starts

Software testing is not an activity to take up when the product is ready. An effective testing begins with a proper plan from the user requirements stage itself. Software testability is the ease with which a computer program is tested. Metrics can be used to measure the testability of a product. The requirements for effective testing are given in the following sub-sections.


The better the software works, the more efficiently it can be tested.

•The system has few bugs (bugs add analysis and reporting overhead to the test process)
•No bugs block the execution of tests

The product evolves in functional stages (allows simultaneous development & testing)


What is seen is what is tested

•Distinct output is generated for each input
•System states and variables are visible or queriable during execution
•Past system states and variables are visible or queriable (eg., transaction logs)
•All factors affecting the output are visible
•Incorrect output is easily identified
•Incorrect input is easily identified
•Internal errors are automatically detected through self-testing mechanism
•Internally errors are automatically reported
•Source code is accessible


The better the software is controlled, the more the testing can be automated and optimized.

•All possible outputs can be generated through some combination of input
•All code is executable through some combination of input
•Software and hardware states can be controlled directly by testing
•Input and output formats are consistent and structured
•Tests can be conveniently specified, automated, and reproduced.


By controlling the scope of testing, problems can be isolated quickly, and smarter testing can be performed.

•The software system is built from independent modules
•Software modules can be tested independently


The less there is to test, the more quickly it can be tested
•Functional simplicity
•Structural simplicity
•Code simplicity


The fewer the changes, the fewer the disruptions to testing
•Changes to the software are infrequent
•Changes to the software are controlled
•Changes to the software do not invalidate existing tests
•The software recovers well from failures


The more information we have, the smarter we will test
•The design is well understood
•Dependencies between internal external and shared components are well understood.
•Changes to the design are communicated.
•Technical documentation is instantly accessible
•Technical documentation is well organized
•Technical documentation is specific and detailed
•Technical documentation is accurate

You may also read:

Need for Software Testing

How and when Testing Starts

Testing is very important phase in the Life Cycle of Software Development so whatever the work testers and test lead are doing in this Phase it should be properly documented and testers should be able to provide the needful information in proper Reports. Here are some important documents, their frequency and the reason for those documents have a look at it:


Test Documentation



High Level Test Plan

Each project

A test plan is produced for each project. It defines what functions will be tested and what functions will not be tested. This document will detail any risks and contingencies as well as stating assumptions and defining required resources.

Test Specification

Each stage

This document details the test conditions and test cases for each stage of testing. This will be used by the testers in the running of their tests.

Test Logs

Each stage

Test Logs are to be produced by each tester – this will enable progress to be monitored and controlled. It will also provide a suitable test audit at the end of the project.

Test Progress Report


This report will provide managers with a weekly progress on the testing being carried out. ‘S’ curves to show test progress will be used as well as faults found/fixed.

Test Summary Report

When required

This summary report will be produced when requested by Senior Management at any stage of the development lifecycle. This will be a condensed version of the Test Progress Report specifically aimed at Senior Management.

Post Project Report

Each project

At the end of each project a ‘Post Project Review’ will be carried. This activity will contain an analysis of what went well and what didn’t go well in terms of the project. A report will be produced detailing the changes for process improvement.

Some or all of the following charts should be used to monitor progress. It is recommended that the graphs be displayed clearly on a wall so everyone is made aware of the current situation. Charts, rather than tables, are also recommended since they are easier to read and are more likely to attract attention and be taken notice of:

Faults Found:

Fault Found in each day of testing

This chart simply logs the number of faults found during each day of the test schedule. The severity of faults could be indicated by using different columns on the chart.

Faults Found vs. Faults Fixed:

Fault Found vs Faults fixed

Monitoring the number of faults found together with the number of faults fixed is a useful way to spot potential scheduling problems early. In the example above the increasing gap between the number of faults found and the number fixed suggests that more development effort is needed to fix more of the outstanding faults. Leaving these until the last moment invariably ends in disaster (delayed release, poor quality system, or both).

Tests Run and Tests Passed vs. Tests Planned:

Tests Run and tests Passed vs Planned

Since we will know at the start of a test effort how many tests we are intending to run (defined by the scope) it is possible to plan the number of tests that should be completed each day of the test effort. This will normally look like an S-Curve, as shown on the example graph above (this is a third-order polynomial). Plotting both the number of tests actually run and the number of tests that have passed will quickly highlight any of a number of problems. For example, if the number of tests run falls below the number planned then either more testers or more time will be needed. If the number of tests passed falls much below the number run (i.e. if a large number of tests fail) then more faults than expected are being found and this will impact both the test team and the developers.

Faults Per Owner:

Faults per Owner

It is important to know how many faults are being worked on at any one time and by whom. This chart will show whether there is a balance of faults being assigned to the team. Each “column” on the bar chart can show priority and/or severity for further analysis.

Number of Defects for each Cycle:

This Graph shows the number of bugs (New bugs, Assigned Bugs, Open Bugs, Fixed Bugs, Reviewed-not-ok Bugs, Closed Bugs, Deferred Bugs) in each cycle for every release. The status of the bugs may be different from company to company. So based on the company the testers have to change the Status in Graph.

Testing Cycle vs Defect Status

Number of different severity bugs in each Cycle:

This Graph shows the number of bugs of different severity (Critical bugs, Major Bugs, Minor Bugs, Cosmetic Bugs) in each cycle for every release. This Severity also each and every organization maintains their own standards so it may be different from company to company. Based on their own standards they have to change the Graph.

Test Cycles Vs Severity

Number of different severity bugs in each Test Level:

This Graph shows the number of bugs of different severity (Critical bugs, Major Bugs, Minor Bugs, Cosmetic Bugs) in test level (Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and User Acceptance Testing) for every release. This Severity also each and every organization maintains their own standards so it may be different from company to company. Based on their own standards they have to change the Graph.

Type of testing Vs Bug Severity

Number of different severity bugs in each Version:

This Graph shows the number of bugs of different severity (Critical bugs, Major Bugs, Minor Bugs, Cosmetic Bugs) in each Version. This Severity also each and every organization maintains their own standards so it may be different from company to company. Based on their own standards they have to change the Graph.

Version vs Bug Severity

The Software Quality Assurance Plan is a high level plan which can say that each of the subject points may be handled differently by each project, depending upon client requirements.

Topics the plan should include are listed below:

  1. Corporation, Plan Title and version, date effective
  2. Purpose of Plan
  3. Glossary of Terms
  4. How documentation is handled (some examples are):
    • Statement of Work
    • Planning Documents such as Software Requirements and Functional Specification
    • User's Manual / Developer's Manual, etc.
  5. Verification and Validation of software
  6. Project management
  7. Software standards used (generally people use Microsoft standards, but some do not)
  8. User Interface Standards used
  9. Development Tools and Techniques
  10. Configuration Management and how source code is saved
  11. Reviews and Audits
  12. Testing
  13. Bug Reporting and Tracking
  14. Training
  15. Risk Management
  16. Process Improvement
  17. Signoffs needed for plan and plan revisions

Accurate defect prediction is useful for planning and management of software testing. The major goal of a software testing process is to find and fix, during debugging, as many defects as possible and release a product with a reasonable reliability.

A trade-off between releasing a product earlier or investing more time on testing is always an issue for the organization. The clear view of the status of the testing process is crucial to compute the pros and cons of possible alternatives. Time to achieve the established goal and percentage of the goal achieved up to the moment are important factors to determine the status of a software testing process.

Many defect prediction techniques have addressed this important problem by estimating the total number of defects, which then provide the status of a testing process in terms of remaining number of defects in a software product. The availability of an accurate estimation of the number of defects at early stages of the testing process allows for proper planning of resource usage, estimation of completion time, and current status of the process. Also, an estimate of the number of defects in the product by the time of release, allows the inference of required customer support.

Software testing is still a pain-in-the-neck for many organizations. Because it is only marginally addressed in software process improvement models like CMM, a separate Testing Process Improvement model is needed. The current authors have implemented a structured testing process guided by the “Testing Maturity Model” (TMM). An outline of this model is presented, showing how with growing maturity, testing evolves from detecting defects in software code to testing as essential product quality control instrument. The biggest strengths of TMM are:

It reflects 40 years of industry-wide best test practices and it is designed as a counterpart of the popular CMM model for software development improvement. Weaknesses include the under-representation of test people and organization related issues, and missing maturity goals for the test infrastructure. Based on practical implementation guided by TMM, the process of test process improvement is addressed and experiences are presented.

Implications of the Proposed Change

* Identify any existing requirements in the baseline that conflict with the proposed change.
* Identify any other pending requirement changes that conflict with the proposed change.
* What are the consequences of not making the change?
* What are possible adverse side effects or other risks of making the proposed change?
* Will the proposed change adversely affect performance requirements or other quality attributes?
* Will the change affect any system component that affects critical properties such as safety and security, or involve a product change that triggers recertification of any kind?

Hi Friends, I had a couple of friends who wanted a few details about QTP certification. I have collected some of them. The details are given below.
If there is any one in our group who has taken up the QTP certification please let us know...

Here are the details of the exam:

Name of the exam:QuickTest Professional 9.0 CPC exam
Exam Code: HP0-M16
Certification Provider : HP
Cost : 60$

Syllabus: Document Attached

For more details on the procedure of how to apply for this exam, pls visit,

The prometric site is the place where you would have to register and schedule the exam.
You would also have to get a HP student id for this process.
In Bangalore they have exam centers at 5 to 6 centers. I have listed 2 here... You can call them to get more details.

BANGALORE, Karnataka 560055
Phone: 23449427 Site Code: II66

BANGALORE, Karnataka 560025
Phone: 25599379 Site Code: II8

When QuickTest uses the learned description to identify an object, it searches for an object that matches all of the property values in the description. In most cases, this description is the simplest way to identify the object, and, unless the main properties of the object change, this method will work.

If QuickTest is unable to find any object that matches the learned object description, or if it finds more than one object that fits the description, then QuickTest ignores the learned description, and uses the Smart Identification mechanism to try to identify the object.

While the Smart Identification mechanism is more complex, it is more flexible. Therefore, if configured logically, a Smart Identification definition can probably help QuickTest identify an object, if it is present, even when the learned description fails.

The Smart Identification mechanism uses two types of properties:

Base Filter Properties. The most fundamental properties of a particular test object class; those whose values cannot be changed without changing the essence of the original object. For example, if a Web link's tag was changed from to any other value, you could no longer call it the same object.
Optional Filter Properties. Other properties that can help identify objects of a particular class. These properties are unlikely to change on a regular basis, but can be ignored if they are no longer applicable.

Understanding the Smart Identification Process

If QuickTest activates the Smart Identification mechanism during a run session (because it was unable to identify an object based on its learned description), it follows the following process to identify the object:

QuickTest "forgets" the learned test object description and creates a new object candidate list containing the objects (within the object's parent object) that match all of the properties defined in the Base Filter Properties list.

QuickTest filters out any object in the object candidate list that does not match the first property listed in the Optional Filter Properties list. The remaining objects become the new object candidate list.

QuickTest evaluates the new object candidate list:

If the new object candidate list still has more than one object, QuickTest uses the new (smaller) object candidate list to repeat step 2 for the next optional filter property in the list.
If the new object candidate list is empty, QuickTest ignores this optional filter property, returns to the previous object candidate list, and repeats step 2 for the next optional filter property in the list.

If the object candidate list contains exactly one object, then QuickTest concludes that it has identified the object and performs the statement containing the object.
QuickTest continues the process described in steps 2 and 3 until it either identifies one object, or runs out of optional filter properties to use.
If, after completing the Smart Identification elimination process, QuickTest still cannot identify the object, then QuickTest uses the learned description plus the ordinal identifier to identify the object.

If the combined learned description and ordinal identifier are not sufficient to identify the object, then QuickTest stops the run session and displays a Run Error message. For more information on Run Error messages, see Troubleshooting QuickTest Tests.

Reviewing Smart Identification Information in the Test Results

If the learned description does not enable QuickTest to identify a specified object in a step, and a Smart Identification definition is defined (and enabled) for the object, then QuickTest tries to identify the object using the Smart Identification mechanism.

If QuickTest successfully uses Smart Identification to find an object after no object matches the learned description, the step is assigned a Warning status in the Test Results, and the result details for the step indicate that the Smart Identification mechanism was used.

If the Smart Identification mechanism cannot successfully identify the object, QuickTest uses the learned description plus the ordinal identifier to identify the object. If the object is still not identified, the test or component fails and a normal failed step is displayed in the results.

QTP has a unique feature by the name Smart Object Identification or recognition which is used for identifying the objects smartly, whenever the normal identification fails due to the dynamic changes in the properties of the objects.

Smart identification is a technique in QuickTest Professional. It is used to identify the objects, even though few mandatory properties are changed at run time. Smart Identification is nothing but an algorithm used by the QTP when it is not able to recognize an object.

A simple generic example as per the QTP manual would be, A photograph of a 8 year old girl and boy and QTP records identification properties of that girl when she was 8, now when both are 10 years old then QTP would not be able to recognize the girl. But there is something that is still the same that is there is only one girl in the photograph. So a kind of PI - Programmed intelligence is needed instead of AI.

- Smart Identification is not Artificial Intelligence
- SI uses loose/unreliable object recognition
- It’s recommended to disable SI for each and every page/window/control using the Tools->Object Identification dialog (Recording).

Object identification is necessary to recognize the GUI objects on the screen. During automatic recording of a script, the object identifier records various objects present on the screen. The smart identification feature of QTP smartly identifies all the objects irrespective of their being developed using same technology or not, e.g. smart identification shall be able to identify the objects in an application although developed in Java but using some of the Microsoft controls as well.

QTP identifies a particular object by comparing the properties of its test object and the run time object. QTP may not be able to recognize any dynamic objects whose properties or even the description may undergo some changes during the run time. Thus its great option of enabling Smart Identification helps us in identifying the objects even if their properties have undergone changes during the run time.

If QTP is not able to detect any object having description matching with that of the recorded object, or in case it detects more than one object having matching description, then QTP ignores the recorded description, and uses the Smart Identification feature to identify the object. Smart Identification mechanism is a bit complex, but flexible. However, if configured logically, Smart Identification definition can help QTP in detecting an object, of course - if present, in-spite of failure of the recorded description.

We can pass parameters in a Action Using input and output parameters.

Let’s take one example:

There are two actions in Test Script.Action1 and Action2. Action1 is Reusable. In Action2 we call Action1.How to Pass value from Action2 to Action1 and use it in Action1

Way 1:

So Now If you need pass parameters between actions first we have to add then in the action properties

For your problem we have to add a new input parameter "x" for Action1
then write the following code in Action2
RunAction "Action1", AllIterations,k where k is the value being passed to action1 and should be defined with some value in action2

then write the following code in Action1

msgbox parameter("x")

Way 2:

Scenario: suppose you call Action2 from Action1 and Action2 has one input and one output parameter defined.

RunAction "Action2", oneIteration, “MyValue”, MyVariable

Supplies a string value of MyValue for the input parameter and stores the resulting value of the output parameter in a variable called MyVariable.

Sequence of events:
1. Create two Actions:
New Test -> Go to Insert -> Call to New Action -> Select "After the current step". Press OK.
2. Define Input Test Parameter:
Go to Test -> Settings -> Parameters tab -> ADD Input Parameter -> Enter the values, Press Apply and OK
For Action 1:
3. Define an input parameter for Action1:

Right-clicking on Action1 and select Action Properties -> Parameters tab -> ADD Input Parameter -> Enter the values, Press Apply and OK

Again Right-click on Action1 and select Action Call Properties -> Parameters tab -> Click on the cell under the Value column for [Parameter 1 of Action 1].

You will see a button on the right of the cell, click it. Select "Parameter" and "Test Parameter".
In the Name drop-down list, select "TestParam", which matches the input parameter created in the test settings.

Repeat Sequence 3 (Step 3) for Action 2 also. The name of input parameter for Action 2 will be “Param2”. Select [Parameter 1 of Action 1] in the Name dropdown.

4. Go to the Expert View of Action 2 and write the following code:
msgbox Parameter("Param2")

The above steps can be repeated if you wish to pass more Parameters.

LoadRunner is a performance and load testing product by Hewlett-Packard (since it acquired Mercury Interactive in November 2006) for examining system behaviour and performance, while generating actual load. LoadRunner can emulate hundreds or thousands of concurrent users to put the application through the rigors of real-life user loads, while collecting information from key infrastructure components (Web servers, database servers etc). The results can then be analysed in detail, to explore the reasons for particular behaviour.

Consider the client-side application for an automated teller machine (ATM). Although each client is connected to a server, in total there may be hundreds of ATMs open to the public. There may be some peak times — such as 10 a.m. Monday, the start of the work week — during which the load is much higher than normal. In order to test such situations, it is not practical to have a testbed of hundreds of ATMs. So, given an ATM simulator and a computer system with LoadRunner, one can simulate a large number of users accessing the server simultaneously. Once activities have been defined, they are repeatable. After debugging a problem in the application, managers can check whether the problem persists by reproducing the same situation, with the same type of user interaction.

Working in LoadRunner involves using three different tools which are part of LoadRunner. They are Virtual User Generator (VuGen), Controller and Analysis.

A performance test is a technical investigation done to determine or validate the speed, scalability, and/or stability characteristics of the product under test. Performance testing is the superset containing all other subcategories of performance testing.

Elements of LoadRunner are:
- Virtual User Generator
- Controller

Virtual User Generator

The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) allows a user to record and/or script the test to be performed against the application under test, and enables the performance tester to play back and make modifications to the script as needed. Such modifications may include Parameterization (selecting data for keyword-driven testing), Correlation and Error handling.

LoadRunner supports several protocols like Web HTML/HTTP, Remote Terminal Emulator, Oracle and Web Services. A protocol can be understood as a communication medium between the clients and the server. For example a AS400 or Mainframe based application use Terminal Emulator to talk to the Server where as a Web Online banking application uses HTML with some Java and Web services. LoadRunner is capable of recording scripts in both single and multi-protocol modes.

During recording, VuGen records a tester's actions by routing data through a proxy. The type of proxy depends upon the protocol being used, and affects the form of the resulting script. For some protocols, various recording modes can be selected to further refine the form of the resulting script. For instance, there are two types of recording modes used in LoadRunner Web/HTTP testing: URL based, and HTML based.

Correlation : It is a method used by LoadRunner to handle Dynamic Contents. The examples of Dynamic content are ticket number in an online reservation system or a transaction id in an online banking application. These are named so, as these page components are dynamically created during every execution of the business process and always differ from the value generated in previous runs. These dynamic contents are a part of the server response. The LoadRunner usually identifies these on the basis of the left and right boundaries and ordinal identifiers.


Once a script is prepared in VuGen, it is run via the Controller. LoadRunner provides for the usage of various machines to act as Load Generators. For example, to run a test of 1000 users, we can use three or more machines with a LoadRunner agent installed on them. These machines are known as Load Generators because the actual load will be generated from them (Load Generators were previously known as "Injectors" - the latter term is still widely used). Each run is configured with a scenario, which describes which scripts will run, when they will run, how many virtual users will run, and which Load Generators will be used for each script. The tester connects each script in the scenario to the name of a machine which is going to act as a Load Generator, and sets the number of virtual users to be run from that Load Generator.

LoadRunner uses monitors during a load test to monitor the performance of individual components under load. Some monitors include Oracle monitors, WebSphere monitors, etc... Once a scenario is set and the run is completed, the result of the scenario can be viewed via the Analysis tool.

Load Runner Testing Process

Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly
defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop
will accomplish load-testing objectives.

Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that
contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by
Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions.

Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the
events that occur during a testing session. It includes a
list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the
scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller.
We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented
scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of
Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of
Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may
create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal
that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically
builds a scenario for us.

Step 4: Running the scenario.We emulate load on the server
by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks
simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario
configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire
scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.

Step 5: Monitoring the scenario.We monitor scenario
execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction,
system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web
application server resource, database server resource,
network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server
resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors.

Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution,
LoadRunner records the performance of the application under
different loads. We use LoadRunner?s graphs and reports to
analyze the application?s performance.

Analysis of LoadRunner

This tool takes the completed scenario result and prepares the necessary graphs for the tester to view. Also, graphs can be merged to get a good picture of the performance. The tester can then make needed adjustments to the graph and prepare a LoadRunner report. The report, including all the necessary graphs, can be saved in several formats, including HTML and Microsoft Word format.

Register yourself for QTP Certification

HP QTP Certification HP0-M016 Exam Sample Questions

Mostly asked questing in QTP Certification - 1

Mostly asked questing in QTP Certification -2

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 10

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 9

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 8

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 7

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 5

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 6

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 4

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 3

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 2

QTP Certification Practice Questions - Set 1

QTP Sample paper - Part 14

QTP Sample paper - Part 13

QTP Sample paper - Part 12

QTP Sample paper - Part 11

1) The new Object Repository Comparison Tool is
accessible from the Object Repository Manager. You can
use this tool to identify the differences between
objects in ........
A) two specified shared object repository files.
B) a Shared and a Local object repository files.
C) either Shared or Local object repository files.
D) two specified Local object repository files.

2) You can use the objects and methods of the
QuickTest .................... to write scripts that
automatically manipulate object repositories, instead of
performing these operations manually using the Object
Repository Manager.
A) Automation object model
B) Object Repository automation object model
C) Object Repository model
D) Object Repository Script Object model

3) You must convert object repository files from
QuickTest Professional 8.2.1 or earlier to the current
format before you can use them in QuickTest Professional
9.0 or later. Which method lets you do so.
A) Conversion method
B) Converge method
C) Convert method
D) None

4) You open the Object Repository window for a
specific component by choosing ..........
A) Resources > Object Repository
B) Tools > Object Repository
C) File > Object Repository
D) Help > Object Repository

5) In QTP 9 or above, Test objects can be stored in
two types of object repositories—........
A) a shared object repository and a Per-Action object
B) a shared object repository and a local object
C) a shared object repository and a Action object
D) Both A & C

6) The Object Repository Manager enables you to open
...... shared object repositories and modify them as
A) multiple
B) three
C) two
D) Seven

7) ........ Method Loads the specified object
A) Overload
B) Load
C) Both A & B
D) None

8) An object repository that is currently open by
another user is locked, is it possible to merge a locked
object repository.
A) Yes
B) No

9) You can manage the shared object repository
associations of a selected test using the ............
A) Associate Repositories dialog box
B) Object Repositories dialog box
C) Associate Repositories Manager dialog box
D) Object Repositories Manager dialog box

10) All changes you make to an object repository are
automatically updated in all components open on the same
computer that use the object repository as soon as you
make the change—even if you have not yet saved the
object repository with your changes.
A) True
B) False

11) If you want to modify an object stored in a shared
object repository, you can modify it.......
A) using the Object Repository Manager
B) you can modify it locally using the Object Repository
C) Both A & B
D) None of above

12) ................ Returns an ObjectRepositories
collection representing all object repository files
associated with the action.
A) Object Property
B) Automation Object Model
C) ObjectRepositories Property
D) OR PropertyAnswers


1) a 2) b 3) c 4) a 5) b 6) a 7) b 8) a 9) a 10) a 11) c 12)c

1) You can import and export object repositories from
and to .... files.

2) In general, the ....... object repository is
easiest to use when you are creating simple record and
run tests.
A) Shared
B) Local
C) Both
D) None

3) The Object Repository automation object model
enables you to manipulate QuickTest ....... object
repositories and their contents from outside of
A) Shared
B) Local
C) Both
D) None

4) Before using the Object Repository automation
object model to manipulate shared object repository
stored in Quality Center, you must download the shared
object repository and save it to the file system.
A) True
B) False

5) SetTOProperty changes the property values used to
identify an object during the test run. It also effects
the values saved in the Object Repository for the
A) True
B) False

6) After creating or editing an object repository XML
file, it is recommended to use the QuickTest
..........functionality to verify that your file
conforms to the QuickTest object repository schema.
A) Schema Verification
B) Schema Validation
C) XML Validation
D) XML Verification

7) To display the Comment in the Object Repository
dialog box, you must use the attribute name .........
A) miccommentproperty
B) commentproperty
C) mic_comment_property
D) None of above

8) ObjectRepositoryUtil Object Enables you to
manipulate .....object repository files from outside of
QuickTest Professional.
A) Shared
B) Local
C) Both
D) None

9) You can use the Object Repository Merge Tool to
merge objects from ......
A) two shared object repositories into a single shared
object repository.
B) the local object repository of one or more actions or
components into a shared object repository.
C) Both A & B
D) None

10) GetTOProperty method returns the value of a
specified property for a test object from the Object
A) True
B) False


1)a 2)b 3)a 4)a 5)b 6)b 7)a 8)c 9)c 10)a

1. When a procedure is created in the Function Library editor, what is the extension on the file?


2. What are the categories in the Step Generator?

A. Object, Operation, Value
B. Library, Built-in, Local Script
C. Operation, Arguments, Return Value
D. Test Objects, Utility Objects, Functions

3. In Test Settings ->Run the Data Table iteration options are for which data sheet?

A. Local
B. Global
C. Run-time Data Table
D. Design-time Data Table

4. What can you use to handle unpredictable testing exceptions?

A. A Do Loop
B. Recovery Scenario
C. IFHEN statement
D. Selectase statement

5. In which command can you associate a function library to a test?

A. Run Options
B. Test Settings
C. View Options
D. Function Definition Generator

6. Where do you set the action iterations for a specified action?

A. Action Settings
B. Action Properties
C. Action Run Settings
D. Action Call Properties

7. Where do you mark an action as reusable?

A. Action Settings
B. Action Properties
C. Action Run Settings
D. Action Call Properties

8. After running a test that contains both input and output parameters, where can the results of an
output parameter be found?

A. Local DataSheet
B. Global DataSheet
C. Run-time Data Table
D. Design-time Data Table

9. If you have a Virtual Object Collection stored on your machine, and you don't want to use it, what
must you do?

A. Disable Virtual Objects in Test Settings
B. Remove the Collection from your machine
C. Disable Virtual Objects in General Options
D. Remove the Collections from the Resources list

10. Which method for the DataTable utility object will allow you to retrieve information from the Data
Table during a test run?

A. Value
B. Import
C. GetCell
D. GetValue


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1) You cannot expand ...... actions from the test flow
A) reusable
B) non-reusable
C) both A & B
D) None

2) You can associate shared object repositories with
...... actions simultaneously, using the Associate
Repositories dialog box
A) seven
B) Two
C) Three
D) Multiple

3) You can associate ....... object repositories with
an action, and the same object repository can be
associated with different actions as needed
A) Nine
B) Twenty one
C) as many as you need
D) Twelve

4) Sometimes you may want to call an action from
within an action. This is called .......
A) Reusability
B) Nesting
C) Sharing
D) None

5) If a reusable action is called more than once in a
test and you split the action into two independent
actions, each call to the action within the test will be
followed by a call to the new (reusable) action. If a
reusable action is called from another test, however,
...... it may cause the calling test to fail.
A) Nesting
B) Splitting
C) Reusing
D) Both A & C

6) You must use the ...... Action option in QuickTest
if you want to save an action under another name.
A) Resave
B) Rename
C) Reuse
D) Split

7) When you remove an external action, you remove all
calls and the action from the action list. The original
action is also affected.
A) True
B) False

8) You can also press ...... to open the Rename Action
dialog box
A) Shift + F2
B) Shift + F3
C) Shift + F4
D) Shift + F5

9) If you want to include one or more statements in
every new action in your test, you can create an ....
A) reusable action
B) split action
C) Function
D) action template

11) Only the file name ...... is recognized as an
action template
A) ActionTemplate.mst
B) Action_Template.mst
C) Action-Template.mst
D) ActionTemplates.mst


1) a 2) d 3) c 4) b 5) b 6) b 7) b 8) a 9) d 11) a

1) 'Browser navigation timeout' is in which tab of Test Settings
(File->Settings) window.

A) Properties
B) Resources
C) Web
D) Web Settings

2) How many tabs are there in Test Settings (File->Settings) window

A) 7
B) 6
C) 5
D) 8

3) Identify the tabs in the Test Settings (File->Settings) window

A) Properties, Run, Resources, Parameters, Environment, Web, Recovery
B) Properties, Run, Resources, Parameters, Environment, Web
C) Properties, Run Options, Resources, Parameters, Environment, Web,
D) Properties, Run, Resources, Input Parameters, Environment, Web, Recovery

4) 'Generate Script' is in which tab of Test Settings (File->Settings)

A) Properties
B) Web
C) Resources
D) Recovery

5) The following are the four main columns in the Keyword view

A) Item, Operation, Value, Comments
B) Item, Operation, Value, Documentation
C) Item, Operation, Property, Documentation
D) Number, Operation, Value, Documentation

6) For each object and method in an Expert View statement, a
corresponding row exists in the Keyword View.

A) True
B) False
C) There is a problem with the statement.
D) None of above

7) You can work on one or several function libraries at the same time.

A) True
B) False

8) You can insert additional steps on the test objects captured in the
Active screen after the recording session.

A) True
B) False

9) The Active Screen enables you to parameterize object values and
insert checkpoints

A) True
B) False

10) A QTP user can increase or decrease the active screen information
saved with the test.

A) True
B) False


1) C, 2) A, 3) A, 4) A, 5) b, 6) A, 7) A, 8) A, 9) A, 10) A

11) The Information pane provides a list of............. in the test:

A) Semantic errors
B) Syntax errors
C) Common errors
D) Logic errors

12) When we switch from Expert view to the Keyword view, QTP
automatically checks for syntax errors in the test and shows them in the
information pane.

A) True
B) False

13) If the information pane is not open, QTP automatically opens it in
case a syntax error is detected.

A) True
B) False

14) ..................... provides a list of the resources that are
specified in your test but cannot be found.

A) Missing pane
B) Missing Resources pane
C) Resources pane
D) Missing Items pane

15) Whenever you open a test or a function library, QTP automatically
checks for the availability of specified resources.

A) True
B) False

16) The Data Table does not assists you in parameterizing your test.

A) True
B) False

17) Tabs in the Debug Viewer pane are:

A) Watch, Variables, Debug
B) Watch, Data, Command
C) Watch, Variables, Command
D) View, Variables, Command

18) ............... tab enables you to view the current value of any
variable or VBScript expression.

A) Watch
B) VIew
C) Locate
D) Current

19) The .... tab displays the current value of all variables that have
been recognized up to the last step performed in the run session.

A) View
C) Locate
D) Current

20) The enables you to run a line of script to set or
modify the current value of a variable or VBScript object in your test
or function library.

A) View
B) Variables
C) Command
D) Current


11) B, 12) A, 13) A, 14) B, 15) A, 16) B, 17) C, 18) A, 19) B, 20) C

21) Panes in QTP can have one of the following states—docked or floating.

A) True
B) False

22) Which of the following statement is True:

A) QuickTest enables you to open and work on one test at a time
B) QuickTest enables you to open and work on two tests at a time
C) QuickTest enables you to open and work on predefined number of tests
at a time
D) QuickTest enables you to open and work on nine test at a time

23) Which of the following statement is True:

A) You can open and work on two function libraries simultaneously
B) You can open and work on multiple function libraries simultaneously
C) You can open and work on nine function libraries simultaneously
D) You can open and work on one function library at a time

24) You can open any function library, regardless of whether it is
associated with the currently open test.

A) True
B) False

25) You can work with multiple documents (test, component, or
application area, function libraries) using the...... dialog box

A) Panes
B) Display
C) Show
D) Windows

26) QuickTest has ..... built-in toolbars.

A) 5
B) 6
C) 7
D) 8

27) The ......... toolbar contains buttons for recording and running
your test.

A) Standard
B) Tools
C) Automation
D) Edit

28) Shortcut Key for opening a new Function Library is:

A) Shift+Alt+N
B) Ctrl+Alt+N
C) Shift+N

29) Shortcut Key for Closing all open Function Libraries in one go.

A) Ctrl+Alt+C
B) Shift+A+C
D) None of these

30) shortcut Key for Commenting out the current row, or selected rows

A) Shift+M
B) Ctrl+C
C) Ctrl+M
D) Shift+C


21) A, 22) A, 23) B, 24) A, 25) D, 26) D, 27) C, 28) A, 29) D, 30) C

31) You can manage the test actions and the test or function library
steps using the ... menu commands

A) File
B) Edit
C) Automation
D) Tools

32) To expand all the steps in the keyword view which option you would
use from the View menu.

A) Expand
B) Expand All
C) Expand Items
D) Expand Rows

33) What is the shortcut key to open a Step Generator.

A) F2
B) F5
C) F6
D) F7

34) Function Definition Generator in found in which menu option.

A) File
B) Tools
C) Insert
D) View

35) The shortcut keys for Record, Stop and Run respectively are

A) F3, F4, F5
B) F4, F3, F5
C) F4, F5, F3
D) F3, F5, F4

36) What is the shortcut key for opening an Object Repository.

A) Alt+R
B) Shift+R
C) Ctrl+R
D) Shift+O+R

37) Shortcut key to Insert/Remove a breakpoint is

A) F9
B) F8
C) Ctrl+b
D) Shift+b

38) .........runs only the current line of the script. If the current
line calls a method, the method is displayed in the view but is not

A) Step Over
B) Step Out
C) Step Into
D) Step Till

39) .........runs only the current line of the script. When the current
line calls a method, the method is performed in its entirety, but is not
displayed in the view.

A) Step Over
B) Step Out
C) Step Into
D) Step Till

40) What is the shortcut key to Clear all Breakpoints

A) Ctrl+Shift+F9
B) Shift+Ctrl+F9
C) Alt+Shift+F9
D) Alt+Ctrl+F9


31) B, 32) B, 33) D, 34) C, 35) A, 36) C, 37) A, 38) C, 39) A, 40) A

41) Object Spy can be found in

A) Tool
B) Tools
C) Task
D) Tasks

42) ............ displays the open documents side-by-side.

A) Tile Vertically
B) Tile Horizontally
C) Cascade
D) Tile Cascade

43) For opening the QuickTest Professional Help we can use.......

A) F3
B) F5
C) F1
D) F2

44) If QTP cannot find any object that matches the description, or if it
finds more than one object that matches, QuickTest may use
the............mechanism to identify the object.

A) Ordinal Identifier
B) Index Identifier
C) Smart Identification
D) Assistive Identification

45) You can configure the ........, ............ and ............
properties that QuickTest uses to record descriptions of the objects in
your application

A) mandatory, assistive, and ordinal identifier
B) mandatory, required, and ordinal identifier
C) smart, assistive, and ordinal identifier
D) Index, assistive, and ordinal identifier

46) The .......... property set for each test object is created and
maintained by QuickTest.

A) Run-Time Object
B) Test Object
C) Smart Identification Object
D) Assistive Object

47)You can access and perform ......... methods using the Object property.

A) Run-Time Object
B) Test Object
C) Smart Identification Object
D) Assistive Object

48) You can view or modify the test object property values that are
stored with your test in the .........

A) Information Pane
B) Data Table
C) Information Pane & Data Table Both
D) Object Properties & Object Repository dialog box.

49) You can retrieve or modify property values of the test object during
the run session by adding ..........statements in the Keyword View or
Expert View.

A) GetROProperty & SetROProperty
B) GetTOProperty & SetTOProperty
C) GetTOProperty & SetROProperty
D) GetROProperty & SetTOProperty

50) If the available test object methods or properties for an object do
not provide the functionality you need, you can access ..............of
any run-time object using the Object property.

A) The internal methods and properties
B) The mandatory methods and properties
C) The selective methods and properties
D) The assistive methods and properties


41) B, 42) A, 43) C, 44) C, 45) A, 46) B, 47) A, 48) D, 49) B, 50) A

51) Using the Object Spy, you can view

A) the run-time or test object properties and methods of any object in
an open application.
B) the run-time or test object properties of any object in an open
C) the test object properties and methods of any object in an open
D) the run-time object properties and methods of any object in an open

52) There are .........object type filters in Object spy dialog box.

A) Two
C) Four
D) Five

53) In the Object Spy window, in the Properties Tab

A) Copying of Properties and its values is possible with CTRL+C
B) Copying of Properties and its values is possible by right clicking on
it and choosing copy.
C) Copying of Properties and its values is possible with both A) and B)
D) Copying of Properties and its values is possible is not possible

54) In the Object Spy window, in the methods Tab

A) Copying of Methods is possible with CTRL+C
B) Copying of Methods is possible by right clicking on it and choosing copy.
C) Copying of Methods is possible with both A) and B) methods
D) Copying of Methods is possible is not possible

55) Object Spy dialog box

A) Can be resized
B) Cannot be resized

56) .............. are the highest level of the test hierarchy in the
Keyword view.

A) Tests
B) Steps
C) Call to Actions
D) Actions

57) You can copy and paste or drag and drop actions to move them to a
different location within a test

A) True
B) False

58) You can print the contents of the Keyword View to your Windows
default printer (and even preview the contents prior to printing).

A) True
B) False

59) In the Keyword View, you can also view properties for items such as

A) True
B) False

60) In the step Browser > Page > Edit > Set "Sachin", identify container

A) Browser
B) Edit
C) Page
D) Both Browser & Page


51) A, 52) A, 53) A, 54) A, 55) A, 56) D, 57) A, 58) A, 59) A, 60) D

61) You can use the Keyword View to add a step your test.

A) at the end
B) below the currently selected step
C) at the beginning
D) at anypoint

62) The Documentation cell is .............

A) Read-only
B) Write-only
C) Read and Write
D) Read, write & execute

63) An Item column can be any of the following:

A) A test object
B) A statement like Dim
C) A step generated by step generator
D) All of above

64) The Operation cell in the keyword view specifies the operation to be
performed on the item listed in the ........... column.

A) Operation
B) Documentation
C) Item
D) Value

65) Even if the Item column in the Keyword View is displayed to the
right of the Operation column, you must still first select an item to
view the list of available operations in the Operation column.

A) True
B) False

66) The Value cell in the keyword view can contain........ value

A) Constant
B) Parameter
C) Both A) & B)
D) None of these

67)The ............... enables you to encode your passwords and place
secure values into the Data Table.

A) Password Encoder
B) Password Decoder
C) Password Encode
D) Password Decode

68) You can also encrypt strings in Data Table cells using the .........
option in the Data Table menu.

A) Decrypt
B) Encrypt
C) Encrypt Code
D) Decrypt Code

69) In addition to adding standard statement steps to your test using
the Keyword View, you can also insert

A) Checkpoint step
B) Output value step
C) Comment step
D) All of above

70) The correct syntax of the conditiona statement starting with Do is.....

A) Do...While
B) Do...Until
C) Do...Next
D) Both A) and B)


61) D, 62) A, 63) D, 64) C, 65) A, 66) C, 67) A, 68) B, 69) D, 70) D